Kinins are phytohormones which initiate cell division in tissues,
including those whose cells do not divide in the absence of kinins
even when optimally nourished and supplied with other phytohormones.
Kinins occur in the endosperm of mazize and coconut, and in other
True cytokinis were discovered as a result of efforts to find factors
that would stimulate plant cells to divide. They were shown to affect
many other physiological and developmental processes. These effects
include the delay of senescence in detached organs, the mobilization
of nutrients, chloroplast maturation, the expansion of cotyledons,
and the control of morphogenesis. In the case of chloroplast maturation,
delay of senescence, and mobilization of nutrients, cell division
does not occur during the cytokinin induced response. In other words,
cytokinins have a number of different, apparently unrelated rebulatory
roles in higher plants.
A large number of chemical compounds have been synthesized and
tested for cytokinin activity. Analysis of these compounds provides
insight into structural requirements for activity. Nearly all compounds
as active as cytokinins are 6-substituted aminopurines derivatives.
Benzylaminopurine (BAP), which has found uses in agriculture, is
an example of synthetic 6-substituted aminopurine cytokinin.
Benzylaminopurine has proven to accelerate plant cell growth and
division and has recently developed as a color preserver in vegetables
such as asparagus, broccoli, brussels sprouts, lettuce, and celery
for extended color retention during harvesting, shipping and storage
by using chlorophyll retention. N-6 BAP's success in increasing
size and multiple budding characteristics in a variety of tropical
and subtropical fruits and vegetables has attracted great interest
in the agricultural economies. Two of N-6BAP's many attractions
are its ability to display high activity in very diluted solution
and its USFDA General Recognize as a Safe Status which requires
no registration for its use.
A major problem associated with N-6BAP has been its poor solubility
in water. However, Interchem Technologies has developed a sophisticated
technique to increase N-6BAP's solubility in aqueous solution containing
125 mgm. of N-6BAP per milliliter (0.125 gm/ml). This new concept
called a "concentrated stock" solution can be diluted
with water to any level of concentration desired for direct field
- Acceleration of cell division and the related DNA synthesis.
- Acceleration of inhibition of cell enlargement in leaves.
- Promotion of leaf bud formation and elimination of the related
polarity, as well as the mutual inhibition of longitudinal growth.
- Promotion of root growth and root formation; occasionally inhibition.
- Influence of leaf shape and leaf pigments
- Promotion of germination
- Interruption of the rest period (dormancy)
- Increase in respiration and RNA and DNA synthesis.
- Inhibition of protein degradation, rejuvenation of the leaves
- Translocation of low-molecular nitrogen compounds but not inorganic
- Increase size nad produce larger fruit