Today there are highly specific synthetic lures now commercially
produced, in quantity, that provide reproducible results in monitoring
programs. The key benefit of an insect monitoring program is protection
of crop quality by timing pesticide sprays more accurately.
As a general rule, traps should be placed in the field one or two
weeks before the earliest known emergence date (which varies each
year according to temperature and rate of degree day accumulation).
Also important is the average number of flights during the season.
Traps are hung on branches of trees, plants, and shrubs in the
area to be monitored according to the insect emergency patterns.
Pheromone lure placement in the traps varies with trap style. It
is vital pheromones must be handled with extreme caution to avoid
contamination since they have the affinity to penetrate many materials
that come in direct contact. Also, it is important to remember when
several species are involved in monitoring the encapsulated lure
for one species is not commingled with a lure from the second species
aas the pheronone from the first will transfer to the second via
hands, contaminating the trpas for the second species, or third,
A new approach to insect pest control is that the insect pheromones
can be used as a "mating disruption" (e.g., confusing
and frustrating the insect's attempts to copulate) or properly used
as a mating sex disruptant. This can be accomplished by saturating
an area with a female pheromone - confusing the mailes as to the
location of females, thus preventing females from mating. In addition,
pheromones are used to suppress insect pest populations using a
variety of innovative approaches including mass trapping and various
combinations of attractant baits, trap crops and toxicants.